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This included a remodeling of the Stadtschloss by Johann Dientzenhofer. The city parish church, St. Blasius, was built between — After the Congress of Vienna of —15, most of the territory went to the Electorate of Hesse , which Prussia annexed in Fulda lends its name to the Fulda Gap , a traditional east-west invasion route used by Napoleon I and others. The cavalry had as many as 3, soldiers from the end of World War II until Not all of those soldiers were in Fulda proper, but scattered over observation posts and in the cities of Bad Kissingen and Bad Hersfeld ; the strategic importance of this region led to a large United States — and Soviet military presence.

Fulda is on the Bundesautobahn 7. Bundesautobahn 66 starts at the interchange with the BAB 7. It had 82, inhabitants as of A pre-Roman foundation, Worms was the capital of the Kingdom of the Burgundians in the early 5th century and hence the scene of the medieval legends referring to this period, notably the first part of the Nibelungenlied. Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least , was an important palatinate of Charlemagne.

Worms Cathedral is one of the Imperial Cathedrals and among the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Today, the city is famed as the origin of Liebfraumilch wine.

Other industries include metal goods and fodder. Worms is located on the west bank of the river Rhine between the cities of Mainz. On the northern edge of the city the Pfrimm flows into the Rhine, on the southern edge the Eisbach flows into the Rhine. Worms has 13 boroughs around the city centre, they are as follows: The climate in the Rhine Valley is temperate in winter and quite enjoyable in summer.

Rainfall is below average for the surrounding areas. Winter snow accumulation is low and melts quickly. Worms was in ancient times a Celtic city named Borbetomagus meaning "water meadow", it was conquered by the Germanic Vangiones.

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In 14 BC, Romans under the command of Drusus captured and fortified the city, from that time onwards a small troop of infantry and cavalry were garrisoned there; the Romans renamed the city after the then-emperor and the local tribe. The name does not seem to have taken hold and the German Worms developed from Borbetomagus; the garrison grew into a small town with a regular Roman street plan, a forum, temples for the main gods Jupiter , Juno and Mars.

Roman inscriptions and votive offerings can be seen in the archaeological museum, along with one of Europe's largest collections of Roman glass. Local potters worked in the town's south quarter. Fragments of amphoras contain traces of olive oil from Hispania Baetica , doubtless transported by sea and up the Rhine by ship. During the disorders of —13 AD, the Roman usurper Jovinus established himself in Borbetomagus as a puppet-emperor with the help of King Gunther of the Burgundians , who had settled in the area between the Rhine and Moselle some years before; the city became the capital of the Burgundian kingdom under Gunther.

Few remains of this early Burgundian kingdom survive, because in it was all but destroyed by a combined army of Romans and Huns. Provoked by Burgundian raids against Roman settlements, the combined Romano-Hunnic army destroyed the Burgundian army at the Battle of Worms, killing King Gunther, it is said. The Romans led; the story of this war inspired the Nibelungenlied. The city appears on the Peutinger Map , dated to the 4th century. Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least , with an earlier mention in In the Frankish Empire , the city was the location of an important palatinate of Charlemagne, who built one of his many administrative palaces here.

The bishops administered its territory; the most famous of the early medieval bishops was Burchard of Worms. Worms Cathedral, dedicated to St Peter, is one of the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Alongside the nearby Romanesque cathedrals of Speyer and Mainz, it is one of the so-called Kaiserdome; some parts in early Romanesque style from the 10th century still exist, while most parts are from the 11th and 12th century, with some additions in Gothic style.

Four other Romanesque churches as well as the Romanesque old city fortification still exist, making the city Germany's second in Romanesque architecture only to Cologne. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages. Having received far-reaching privileges from King Henry IV as early as , the city became an Imperial Free City, being independent of any local ruler and responsible only to the Holy Roman Emperor himself. As a result, Worms was the site of several important events in the history of the Empire. In the Concordat of Worms was signed. Most important, among more than a hundred Imperial Diets held at Worms, that of ended with the Edict of Worms , in which Martin Luther was declared a heretic after refusing to recant his religious beliefs.

The Jewish community was established there in the late 10th century, Worms's first synagogue was erected in In , eight hundred Jews were murdered by the local mob; the Jewish Cemetery in Worms , dating from the 11th century, is believed to be the oldest surviv.

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The census recorded , inhabitants in the city of Reims proper, , inhabitants in the metropolitan area, its primary river, the Vesle , is a tributary of the Aisne. Founded by the Gauls , it became a major city during the period of the Roman Empire. It was used for the most important part of the coronation of French kings.

Reims functions as a subprefecture of the department of Marne , in the administrative region of Grand Est. In the course of Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul , the Remi allied themselves with the Romans , by their fidelity throughout the various Gallic insurrections secured the special favour of the imperial power. At its height in Roman times the city had a population in the range of 30, - 50, or up to , Christianity had become established in the city by , at which period Saint Sixtus of Reims founded the bishopric of Reims ; the consul Jovinus , an influential supporter of the new faith, repelled the Alamanni who invaded Champagne in In — ten years after Clovis, King of the Salian Franks , won his victory at Soissons — Remigius, the bishop of Reims, baptized him using the oil of the sacred phial — purportedly brought from heaven by a dove for the baptism of Clovis and subsequently preserved in the Abbey of Saint-Remi.

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For centuries the events at the crowning of Clovis I became a symbol used by the monarchy to claim the divine right to rule. King Louis VII gave the title of duke and peer to William of Champagne , archbishop from to , the archbishops of Reims took precedence over the other ecclesiastical peers of the realm. By the 10th century Reims had become a centre of intellectual culture. Archbishop Adalberon , seconded by the monk Gerbert, founded schools which taught the classical "liberal arts"; the archbishops held the important prerogative of the consecration of the kings of France — a privilege which they exercised from the time of Philippe II Augustus to that of Charles X.


Louis VII granted the city a communal charter in ; the Treaty of Troyes ceded it to the English, who had made a futile attempt to take it by siege in Louis XI cruelly suppressed a revolt at Reims, caused in by the salt tax. In the invasions of the War of the Sixth Coalition in , anti-Napoleonic allied armies captured and re-captured Reims.

Hostilities in World War I damaged the city. German bombardment and a subsequent fire in did severe damage to the cathedral; the ruined cathedral became one of the central images of anti-German propaganda produced in France during the war, which presented it, along with the ruins of the Cloth Hall at Ypres and the University Library in Louvain , as evidence that German aggression targeted cultural landmarks of European civilization.


From the end of World War I to the present day an international effort to restore the cathedral from the ruins has continued; the Palace of Tau , St Jacques Church and the Abbey of St Remi were protected and restored. The collection of preserved buildings and Roman ruins remains monumentally impressive. During World War II the city suffered additional damage.

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But in Reims , at on the morning of 7 May , General Eisenhower and the Allies received the unconditional surrender of the German Wehrmacht. The principal squares of Reims include the. It was one of the most renowned monasteries of the Carolingian Empire. In its ruined state, its remains are among the most important pre-Romanesque—Carolingian style buildings in Germany , its chronicle, entered in the Lorscher Codex compiled in the s is a fundamental document for early medieval German history.

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Another famous document from the monastic library is the Codex Aureus of Lorsch. In the ruined abbey was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site ; the following historical names have been recorded: In the 9th century: Lorishaim 9th and 11th centuries: Loresham 9th—10th centuries: Laurishaim 10th century: Laresham 10th—12th centuries: Lareshaeim and Lauresheim 11th—12th centuries: Lauresham 11th century: Larsem, Lorozam, Lorisham 12th century: Laurisca, Laureshan, Lorisheym, Lors The abbey was founded in by the Frankish Count Cancor and his widowed mother Williswinda as a proprietary church and monastery on their estate, Laurissa.

It was dedicated to Saint Paul. The founders entrusted its government to Cancor's nephew Chrodegang , Archbishop of Metz , who became its first abbot; the pious founders enriched the new abbey by further donations.

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To make the abbey popular as a shrine and a place of pilgrimage , Chrodegang obtained from Pope Paul I the body of Saint Nazarius , martyred at Rome with three companions under Diocletian. On 11 July , the sacred relics arrived, with great solemnity were deposited in the basilica of the monastery.

In Chrodegang resigned the office of abbot, in favour of his other duties as Archbishop of Metz, he sent his brother Gundeland to Lorsch as his successor, with fourteen Benedictine monks. That same year, there was a dispute about property rights between Gundeland and Cancor's son and the abbey was moved to an Ice Age dune , a few hundred metres from its original location on a small island in the Weschnitz. In , Gundeland applied to the highest authority, who found in his favour. Gundeland gave the abbey with all his properties to the king. The abbey and basilica were renamed in honour of Saint Nazarius: the main church of Saints Peter and Nazarius was consecrated by the Archbishop of Mainz in September , in the presence of Charlemagne.

Many miracles were said to be wrought through the intercession of Saint Nazarius at Lorsch, from all parts of Europe pilgrims in large numbers came to visit the shrine.